Better reservoir knowledge and increasingly sophisticated technologies make the production of conventional and unconventional resources in Bulgaria economically viable and more efficient. This efficiency is bringing natural gas, tight gas and oil, and coalbed methane into the reach of more regions around the world.
Coalbed Methane (CSM)
Better reservoir knowledge technologies make the production of coal gas in Bulgaria environmentally safe and economically viable. The coal beds in the Dobrich Basin contained up to 60 individual coal seems, many which contain significant amounts of coal seam gas. Drilling technologies developed withing the last 10 years allow drill operators to enter the coal seams with 99% accuracy and drill a network of long narrow lateral holes with coal seam without leaving the coal bed. This allows gas trapped within the coal seam to naturally migrate as the pressure is reduced in the coal bed. This has put Coal Seam methane into the reach of more regions around the world including China, India and the USA without the use of environmentally controversial methods such as fracing. Park Place is committed to producing Coal gas without fracking.
An abundant and environmentally acceptable energy source, coalbed methane (CBM) is now becoming easier to produce thanks to improved understanding through. (See more about Coalbed methane, also known as Coal Seam Methane "CSM" below)
What is Coal seam natural gas “CSM”?
Coal seam methane is natural gas. The gas is generated within the coal as a result of the metamorphic process that occurs during the transition of peat to anthracite coal. The methane in CSM is adsorbed onto the surface of micropores in the coal. The amount of methane adsorbed increases with pressure. CSM is expelled from the seam over geologic time because coal has the capacity to hold only about a tenth of the methane it produces. Coal seam methane refers to the source of the methane, but the gas is indistinguishable from conventional natural gas.
Economics of CSM
The CSM resources in Dobrich are strategically located to provide much needed clean and efficient energy to Bulgaria’s pipeline grid. CSM will deliver economic, environmental and employment benefits on a local and regional level for generations. CSM can be used to generate electricity and is one of the most cleanest environmentally friendly means of electricity production.
How is CSM extracted
Coal seams are usually saturated with water and the water’s hydrostatic pressure keeps the methane adsorbed on the coal. To obtain methane from coal, water is pumped from a well, reducing pressure and causing methane to desorb and begin to flow from the coal. The coal must be very permeable to allow the gas to flow in large quantity through the coal to the producing well. The gas flow increases as water pressure decreases. Within months, gas flow can be sufficiently high that pumping of water ceases and gas continues to flow.
“Natural gas” is a mixture of predominantly methane and other hydrocarbon gases compounds. Methane is the main constituent of natural gas; other components include heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane and butane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
The coal seams which produce methane are generally about 500m to 1000m below the surface – too deep for commercially viable coal mining. The coal contains adsorbed gas and the seams are usually saturated with water. In this resource, the well-developed fracture system of coal, called cleats means the seams are highly permeable, allowing the flow of gas and water.
As the water is pumped from the seam, pressure is reduced and the methane gas is released in to the cleats for extraction and production. The coals of this resource are clean and highly permeable, readily producing commercial quantities of high quality methane.
Environmentally Preferred Gas
During the production of coal seam methane gas, monitoring and testing is undertaken to ensure compliance with strict environmental guidelines. The coal seam methane gas is exceptionally pure, 97% methane and can be transported directly from the wells into the gas pipeline grid, unlike most natural gas, which requires further processing to strip impurities such as carbon dioxide.
Production of this low emission energy source will help meet environmental commitments to reduce greenhouse gas. Industries such as power generation, alumina refining, chemical and food processing, and domestic users benefit from this environmentally preferred and highly efficient energy source.